Grape Wines, Sherries, and/or Meads

Muscat Grape Wine

April 5, 2001
  • 1 gallon Muscat grape juice
  • granulated sugar (probably unnecessary) to raise the specific gravity if necessary
  • 1/2 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1 finely crushed and dissolved Campden tablet
  • 2/3 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 1 sachet Red Star Steinberg or Kitzinger’s Muscat wine yeast

Check specific gravity of juice and adjust to 1.088 if topping up with finished wine or
1.095 if topping up with water. Put juice in primary. Add Campden tablet (finely crushed and
dissolved in some of the juice), cover primary with sanitized cloth, and set aside for 10-12
hours. Add pectic enzyme, recover the primary, and set aside another 8-10 hours. Stir in yeast
nutrient and add activated yeast. Recover primary. When specific gravity drops to 1.015 or
lower, transfer to secondary fermentation vessel and attach airlock. Wait until all fermentation
ceases and airlock is still for two weeks, then rack into clean secondary, top up and refit
airlock. Wait additional 4-6 weeks and add another finely crushed and dissolved Campden tablet
and 1/3 teaspoon potassium sorbate to clean secondary, rack wine onto it, top up and refit airlock.
Wait 30 days, sweeten to taste, and bottle. Wait two months before tasting for bouquet to develop.
[Author’s own recipe.]

Black Spanish Grape Wine

April 5, 2001
  • 12-15 lbs Black Spanish grapes
  • 1 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1 crushed Campden tablet
  • 3/4 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 3/4 tblsp Oak-Mor powder
  • 1 pkt Bordeaux wine yeast

Pick grapes when fully ripe, discarding any spoiled grapes from clusters. Crush and destem the grapes. Add pectic enzyme and finely crushed Campden tablet to the crush and stir. Cover and set aside overnight. Adjust acid if required and stir in yeast nutrient, Oak-Mor and activated yeast starter. Recover primary and wait for vigorous fermentation. Punch down cap twice daily until vigor subsides. When specific gravity drops to 1.000, strain solids into press and extract remaining juice. Transfer wine to secondary and attach airlock. After 1 month, rack to sanitized carboy, top up, and refit airlock. Conduct two more rackings, 1 month apart, topping up each time. Monitor for MLF if desired, otherwise add Campden after every other racking. Wine should clear on its own. If desired, stabilize and sweeten, wait 14-21 days, then bottle. Cellar 6 months before tasting. [Author’s own recipe]

Mustang Grape Wine (1:3 Ratio)

April 5, 2001
  • 1 quart Mustang Grape juice
  • 3 quarts water
  • 1-3/4 lb granulated sugar
  • 1 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 1 packet Champagne or Montrachet wine yeast

Dissolve sugar in water and add juice and yeast nutrient in primary fermentation vessel. Check Specific Gravity with hydrometer to ensure it is at least 1.090. If shy of this number, add additional sugar as required (see http://winemaking.jackkeller.net/hydrom.asp for table). Sprinkle yeast on top of must (do not stir into liquid) and cover with a clean cloth. Stir into liquid when evidence of fermentation is obvious. Ferment until S.G. drops to 1.020 or lower (6-7 days). Siphon off sediments into secondary and fit airlock. Rack every 30 days until wine clears, topping up each time. When wine clears, wait another 30 days, rack and bottle. If you want to sweeten the wine, stabilize before final racking, wait additional 10 days, rack, sweeten to taste, and bottle. This wine will be drinkable right away, but like all red wines it will improve with age. I would let it sit at least a year before drinking. [Author’s recipes]

Cabernet Sauvignon Wine (Recipe For 5 Gallons)

April 5, 2001
  • 70-75 lbs Cabernet Sauvignon grapes
  • 4 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1/4 tsp potassium metabisulfite
  • 3-31/2 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 3 tblsp Oak-Mor powder
  • 1 pkt malo-lactic culture
  • 1 pkt Bordeaux wine yeast

Pick grapes when fully ripe, discarding any spoiled grapes from clusters. Crush and destem the grapes. Add pectic enzyme and Ľ tsp potassium metabisulfite to the crush and stir with wooden paddle. Cover and set aside overnight. Adjust acid if required and stir in yeast nutrient, Oak-Mor and activated yeast. Recover primary and punch down cap twice daily during primary fermentation. When free sulfur drops below 15 ppm (10 ppm is better), inoculate with malo-lactic culture. When specific gravity drops to 1.000, strain solids into press and extract remaining juice. Transfer wine to secondary and attach airlock. After 1 month, rack to sanitized carboy. Monitor MLF with chromatography and rack again when completed, adding Ľ tsp potassium metabisulfite at racking. Conduct two more rackings, 1 month apart, adding Ľ tsp potassium metabisulfite after last (4th) racking. Wine should clear on its own. If not, let sit another two months, rack, sulfite again, wait 14-21 days, then bottle. Cellar 6-12 months before tasting, depending on your self-control. [Author’s own recipe]

Niagara Grape Wine

April 5, 2001
  • 12-15 lbs fresh Niagara grapes
  • 1 crushed Campden tablet
  • 1/4 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 3/4 tsp yeast nutrient
  • Red Star Côtes des Blancs wine yeast or Lalvin ICV-D47 (Côtes-du-Rhône) wine yeast

Destem and crush grapes. Stir pectic enzyme into crush, cover, and let sit 2-4 hours. Press grapes and put juice in primary. Crush, dissolve and stir one Campden tablet and yeast nutrient into juice, cover and let sit additional 6 hours or overnight. Adjust acidity and sugar if required and stir in activated yeast. Re-cover and set in cool place (65° F.) to ferment. When specific gravity drops to or below 1.015, stir the lees, pour into secondary and fit airlock. Store carboy in cool place. At 4 weeks, rack, sulfite (1 crushed and dissolved Campden tablet), top up, reattach airlock, and return to cool place. Repeat racking every 4 weeks until wine clears, fining after 3rd racking if necessary. When wine clears, filter if deemed necessary. Stabilize, sweeten if required and set aside for 2 additional weeks to ensure wine does not referment. Rack into bottles and allow to rest 3 months before tasting. [Author’s own recipe]

Cabernet Sauvignon Wine

April 5, 2001
  • 5 gallons Cabernet Sauvignon juice
  • 2 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 6 crushed Campden tablets
  • 3 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 1 packet Montrachet, Pasteur Red or Champagne yeast

With a hydrometer, check S.G. of juice. Starting S.G. should be 1.095 or higher. Add finely granulated sugar if required and stir very well to dissolve. Add crushed Campden tablets and yeast nutrient. Cover and wait 12 hours, then add pectic enzyme. Wait another 12 hours and transfer to a 6-gallon carboy, add yeast and fit air lock. Ferment to 1.010 and rack into sterilized 5-gallon carboy, topping up if required. Refit air lock and ferment to dryness (S.G. at 0.990 or lower). Rack, top up, and set aside two months. Rack again and add 5 oz of American White Oak or French or Spanish Oak chips tied in a finely meshed nylon bag. Do not use any other kind of oak chips. Refit airlock and move to a cold or cool place (an old refrigerator set at 38° F. would be ideal). Taste wine after 30 days. If oak taste is sufficient, rack; if not, allow one or two additional weeks and then rack. Top up, refit airlock, and return to cool place for additional 2-4 months. Rack again, stabilize, and wait 10 days before bottling. May taste after one year, but better if aged two. [Author’s recipe]

Oregon Grape Wine (Makes 6 Us Gallons)

April 5, 2001
  • 15 pounds Oregon grape
  • 11 pounds granulated sugar
  • 3 tsp acid blend
  • 5 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 1 tsp yeast energizer
  • 6 campden tablets
  • 6 tsp pectic enzyme.
  • water to 6 US gallons
  • Montrachet wine yeast

To avoid bitterness from the seeds, run the berries through a food mill. Put pulp and juice in primary with sugar, yeast nutrient, yeast energizer, acid blend, crushed Campden tablets, and water to bring total to 6 gallons. Stir well to dissolve sugar. Cover and set aside 12 hours. Add pectic enzyne, stir, recover, and set aside another 12 hours. Initial s.g. should be 1.090. Add activated yeast. Stir twice daily until s.g. drops to 1.030 (1-2 weeks). Strain through nylon straining bag, transfer liquid to secondary and fit airlock. Rack, top up and refit airlock after 30 days. Repeat every 60 days for six months. If wine does not clear on its own, fine with Bentonite. Stabilize with potassium metabisulfite and potassium sorbate and sweeten to taste if desired. Wait 10 days and rack into bottles. Age six months before tasting. Improves with age. [Adapted from recipe by William R. Spiller of Canada]

Chambourcin Wine (Recipe For 5 Gallons)

April 5, 2001
  • 65-75 lbs Chambourcin grapes
  • 4 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1/4 tsp potassium metabisulfite
  • 3-31/2 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 3 tblsp Oak-Mor powder
  • 1 pkt malo-lactic culture
  • 1 pkt Premier Curvče wine yeast

Pick grapes when fully ripe, discarding any spoiled or underripe grapes from clusters. Crush and destem, add pectic enzyme and Ľ tsp potassium metabisulfite to the crush, and stir with wooden paddle. Cover and set aside overnight. Adjust acid and sugar if required and stir in yeast nutrient, Oak-Mor and activated yeast. Recover primary and punch down cap twice daily during primary fermentation. When free sulfur drops below 15 ppm (10 ppm is better), inoculate with malo-lactic culture. When specific gravity drops to 1.000, strain solids into press and extract remaining juice. Transfer wine to secondary and attach airlock. After 1 month, rack to sanitized carboy. Monitor MLF with paper chromatography and rack again when completed, adding Ľ tsp potassium metabisulfite at racking. Conduct two more rackings, 6 weeks apart, adding Ľ tsp potassium metabisulfite after last (4th) racking. Wine should clear on its own. If not, let sit another 6 weeks, rack, stabilize, and wait another wait 30 days. Sweeten wine to 1.002-1.006 according to taste, then bottle. Cellar approximately 6 months before tasting, depending on your self-control. [Author’s own recipe]

Peach And Grape Wine

April 5, 2001
  • 3 lbs ripe peaches
  • 12 oz can frozen white grape concentrate
  • 1-3/4 lbs granulated sugar
  • 1-1/2 tsp acid blend
  • 1/2 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1/4 tsp tannin
  • water to one gallon
  • 1 crushed Campden tablet
  • 1 tsp yeast nutrient
  • Champagne wine yeast

Put the water on to boil. Wash the peaches but do not peel. Cut in halves, remove stones and put in nylon straining bag and tie it closed. Put in primary and mash and squeeze with hands until no solids remain. When water boils, dissolve sugar in it. Pour over peaches. Add can of frozen white grape juice. When must cools, add acid blend, yeast nutrient, tannin, and crushed Campden tablet. Cover primary and set aside 12 hours. Stir in pectic enzyme and set aside another 12 hours. Sprinkle yeast on top of must and recover. Stir daily for 10 days, then drip drain pulp without squeezing. Siphon off sediments into secondary and fit airlock. Rack every 30 days until fermentation completely ends and wine clears. Set aside two months and rack again into bottles. Taste any time after three months. [Author’s recipe]

Chardonnay (Makes 5 Gallons)

April 5, 2001
  • 70 lbs fresh Chardonnay grapes
  • 1/4 tsp potassium metabisulfite
  • 1 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 2˝-3 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 3 tblsp oak powder
  • Malo-Lactic culture
  • White Labs Chardonnay (liquid) wine yeast, SB2 Burgundy (dry) wine yeast, or Unican Burgundy (dry) wine yeast

Grapes may be destemmed and crushed or whole-cluster crushed. Stir pectic enzyme into crush, cover, and let sit 4-6 hours. Press grapes and put juice in primary or 6˝-gallon secondary. Stir potassium metabisulfite into juice, cover (or attach airlock to carboy) and let sit additional 6 hours or overnight. Adjust acidity and sugar if required and stir in yeast nutrient, activated yeast and oak powder. Re-cover and set in cool place (65° F.) to ferment. On 5th day of vigorous fermentation, add malo-lactic culture. When specific gravity drops to or below 1.000, rack into secondary. Store carboy in cooler place (55-60° F.) for 6 weeks. Rack, sulfite (Ľ tsp potassium metabisulfite), top up, reattach airlock, and return to cool place. Repeat racking every 6 weeks until wine clears, fining after 3rd racking if necessary. Keep wine cool for 2 weeks after it clears or 4 weeks if fined. Filter if deemed necessary. Sweeten if required and rack into bottles. Allow 3 months before tasting. [Author’s own recipe]

Riesling Wine (Recipe For 5 Gallons)

April 5, 2001
  • 60-75 lbs Johannisberg Riesling grapes
  • 1/2 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1/4 tsp potassium metabisulfite
  • 3-31/2 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 1 pkt Steinberg or Assmannhausen wine yeast

Pick grapes when fully ripe, discarding any spoiled grapes from clusters. Crush and destem the grapes. Add pectic enzyme to the crush and stir with wooden paddle. Cover and set aside 2 hours. Press grapes and transfer juice to primary fermentation vessel, stirring in Ľ tsp potassium metabisulfite and covering primary. Let sit 8 hours. Adjust acidity and sugar as required (starting specific gravity should not exceed 1.090 unless naturally) and stir in yeast nutrient. Add activated yeast starter gently so starter remains at or near surface (stir shallowly). Recover primary and after 2 hours stir deeply and recover again. Ferment in primary until specific gravity drops to 1.000. Stabilize, rack to secondary, attach airlock, and set in a cool place. Rack every 30-45 days until wine clears, adding Ľ tsp. potassium metabisulfite every other racking (recipe ingredients allow for at least 3 additions). If wine does not clear after 3rd racking, fine with Bentonite and allow additional month to clear. Rack again, sweeten to taste, and bottle. Allow 3-6 months before tasting. [Author’s own recipe]

Concord Grape Wine (1)

April 5, 2001
  • 6 lbs fresh Concord grapes
  • 5 pts water
  • 3-1/4 cups granulated sugar
  • 1/2 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1 crushed Campden tablet
  • 1 tsp yeast nutrient
  • wine yeast

Wash and de-stem grapes, discarding any less than perfect ones. Put in nylon mesh bag, tie securely, and vigorously crush grapes over primary, being sure to crush them all. Place bag
of pulp in primary and add water, sugar, nutrient, and crushed Campden tablet. Stir well to dissolve sugar, cover securely with clean cloth and set aside. After 12 hours add pectic enzyme
and recover. After additional 12 hours check specific gravity. If not at least 1.095, add sugar and stir until dissolved, then add yeast. Stir daily, squeeze the nylon bag to aid in juice
extraction, and check the S.G. When S.G. reaches 1.030 (5-6 days), lightly but steadily press juice from bag. [Set bag aside in bowl to make a second wine (see third recipe below).] Siphon
liquor off sediments into sterilized glass secondary and attach airlock. Check S.G. after 30 days. If 1.000 or lower, rack into clean secondary and reattach airlock. Rack again after 2 months and again after additional 2 months. Allow to clear, stabilize, sweeten if desired (1/2 to 3/4 cup sugar syrup per gallon), and rack again into sterilized bottles. Allow to age two years in bottle before tasting. Improves further with additional aging. [Adapted from Raymond Massaccesi’s Winemaker’s Recipe Handbook ]

Sauvignon Blanc Wine (Recipe For 5 Gallons)

April 5, 2001
  • 60-75 lbs Sauvignon Blanc grapes
  • 1/2 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1/4 tsp potassium metabisulfite
  • 3-31/2 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 1 pkt Red Star Côtes des Blancs wine yeast

Pick grapes when fully ripe, discarding any unripe or spoiled grapes from clusters. Crush and destem the grapes. Add pectic enzyme to the crush and stir with wooden paddle. Cover and set aside 2 hours. Press grapes and transfer juice to primary fermentation vessel, stirring in Ľ tsp potassium metabisulfite and covering primary. Let sit 8 hours. Adjust acidity and sugar as required (starting specific gravity should not exceed 1.090 unless naturally) and stir in yeast nutrient. Add activated yeast starter gently so starter remains at or near surface (stir shallowly). Recover primary and after 12 hours stir deeply and recover again. Ferment in primary until specific gravity drops to 1.000. Stabilize, rack to secondary, attach airlock, and set in a cool place. Rack after 30-45 days, fine with Bentonite and allow additional month to clear. Rack again, adding Ľ tsp. potassium metabisulfite. Cold stabilize the wine for 30 days and rack again. Allow to age 60 days in cool place, stabilize if wine will be sweetened (if to be a dry wine, add another Ľ tsp. potassium metabisulfite), sweeten to taste, and bottle. Allow 3 months before tasting. [Author’s own recipe]

Concord Grape Wine (2)

April 5, 2001
  • 12 lbs fresh Concord grapes
  • 2 pts water
  • 1-1/2 cups granulated sugar
  • 1 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1 crushed Campden tablet
  • 1 tsp yeast nutrient
  • wine yeast

Wash and de-stem grapes, discarding any less than perfect ones. Divide grapes into two nylon mesh bags, tie securely, and vigorously crush grapes over primary, being sure to crush them all. Place bags of pulp in primary and add sugar already dissolved in water, nutrient, and crushed Campden tablet. Cover securely with clean cloth and set aside. After 12 hours add pectic enzyme and recover. After additional 12 hours check specific gravity. If not at least 1.095, add sugar and stir until dissolved, then add yeast. Stir daily, squeezing the nylon bags to aid in juice extraction, and check the S.G. When S.G. reaches 1.030 (5-6 days), lightly but steadily press juice from bags. [Set bags aside in bowl to make a second wine (see third recipe below).] Siphon liquor off sediments into sterilized glass secondary and attach airlock. Check S.G. after 30 days. If 1.000 or lower, rack into clean secondary and reattach airlock. Rack again after 2 months and again after additional 2 months. Allow to clear, stabilize, sweeten (1-1/4 cup sugar
syrup per gallon), and rack again into sterilized bottles. Allow to age two years in bottle before tasting. Improves further with additional aging. [Adapted from Raymond Massaccesi’s Winemaker’s Recipe Handbook ]

Syrah Wine (Makes 5 Gallons)

April 5, 2001
  • 75 lbs fresh Syrah grapes
  • potassium metabisulfite (as needed)
  • 1-1/4 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 3-4 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 3 tblsp oak powder
  • Malo-Lactic culture
  • Wyeast 3267 Bordeaux or J. Laffort Zymaflore F10 or F15 (liquid) wine yeast, or Gervin Varietal A or SB1 Bordeaux (dry) wine yeast

Grapes should be crushed, destemmed, treated with pectic enzyme in primary and stirred. Cover and set aside 4 hours, treat with Ľ teaspoon potassium metabisulfite and stir again. Re-cover and set aside overnight. Draw off sample of juice and measure sugar and acid, adjusting as necessary. Stir in yeast nutrient and oak powder, then add activated yeast. Punch down cap twice daily and on 5th day of vigorous fermentation, inoculate with malo-lactic culture. When specific gravity drops to 1.000, press grapes and return juice to primary or 6˝-gallon secondary until malo-lactic fermentation completes. Dissolve Ľ teaspoon potassium metabisulfite into juice sample and put in sanitized 5-gallon carboy. Rack wine onto sulfite sample, top up and attach airlock. Rack every 6 weeks until wine clears, adding Ľ teaspoon potassium metabisulfite every other racking. Wait 3 weeks after wine clears and rack into bottles. Age 12 months before tasting, longer if will-power permits. [Author’s own recipe]

Concord Grape Wine (Second Fermentation)

April 5, 2001
  • pulp from 6-10 lbs Concord grapes
  • 1 gallon (minus one cup) water
  • 8-10 oz red grape concentrate or Concord grape juice
  • 2 lb granulated sugar
  • 2 tsp acid blend or juice from 1 lemon and 2 thin slices of winesap apple
  • 1/8 tsp tannin or 1 used teabag
  • 1/2 tsp yeast nutrient
  • wine yeast

Begin this wine as soon as practical after pulp is removed from previous use, as you will be using the yeast already present in the pulp (do not allow pulp to dry out). Mix all ingredients except pulp in primary, stir well to dissolve sugar, then add pulp still in nylon bag. S.G. may be lower than expected because of alcohol still trapped in pulp. Cover and ferment, stirring and squeezing bag daily, until S.G. drops to 1.010. Siphon liquor into secondary. Squeeze bag well to extract all juice possible. Add juice to secondary and fit airlock. Rack after 30 days, then every 2 months until wine is clear and no more yeast deposits form after 10 days. Stabilize, sweeten if desired, and siphon into bottles. Taste after two years. [ Author’s recipe ]

Watermelon-Grape Wine

April 5, 2001
  • 6 lb watermelon
  • 1-1/2 lb fresh table red or green grapes
  • water to 1 gallon
  • juice and zest of 2 lemons
  • 1-2/3 lbs granulated sugar
  • 1 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1 crushed Campden tablet
  • 1 tsp yeast nutrient
  • wine yeast

Cut the rind off of melon, cut melon into one-inch cubes, remove loose seeds, and put melon and any free juice in primary (crock, plastic pail, etc.). Thinly grate the yellow off two lemons, juice the lemons, and add the juice and zest (gratings) to primary. Separately, wash, destem, and crush the grapes well in a bowl. Add grapes and grape juice and crushed Campden tablet to primary. Add water to make up 1 gallon. Add sugar and stir well to dissolve. Cover primary with cloth, wait 12 hours and pectic enzyme and yeast nutrient. After additional 12 hours add wine yeast. Cover and ferment 5 days, stirring daily. Strain juice into secondary (demijohn) and fit airlock. Ferment 30 days and rack, top up, refit airlock, and repeat 30 days later. After additional 60 days, rack, top up, and stabilize (add 1/4 tsp potassium sorbate and another crushed Campden tablet). Wait 10 days, sweeten to taste and bottle. Allow to age in bottles one year. [Author’s recipe]

Dago Red (Recipe Makes 5 Gallons

April 5, 2001
  • 70 pounds of any black wine grape
  • 4 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1/2 to 3/4 tsp potassium metabisulfite
  • 3 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 1 pkt red wine yeast

Wash and crush grapes, then move then into primary. Adjust acidity to 6.5 grams per liter and sweeten if
necessary to bring specific gravity to 1.088 if necessary. Sprinkle 1/4 teaspoon potassium metabisulfite on grapes
and stir in well. Cover primary and let sit 12 hours. Sprinkle pectic enzyme on grapes and stir in well. Recover
primary and let sit another 12 hours. Add yeast nutrient, stir well, and add activated yeast. Cover the primary
again and set aside. Punch down the cap daily, stirring juice as you do so. When vigorous fermentation subsides
and specific gravity is below 1.020, press and transfer juice to secondary. Fit airlock and ferment to dryness.
Rack, adding 1/4 teaspoon potassium metabisulfite stirred in well. Top up and refit airlock. After wine clears,
wait 30-45 days and then rack again, top up and refit airlock. Wait additional three months, stabilize, sweeten to
taste, wait ten days, and rack into bottles. Age three months before tasting. May require additional aging.
[Author’s own recipe]

Zinfandel Wine (Recipe For 5 Gallons)

April 5, 2001
  • 60-75 lbs fresh Zinfandel grapes
  • 4 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 3/4 tsp potassium metabisulfite
  • 3-31/2 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 3 tblsp Oak-Mor powder
  • 1 pkt malo-lactic culture
  • 1 pkt Bordeaux wine yeast or Red Star Premier Curvée wine yeast

Pick grapes when fully ripe, discarding any spoiled or under-ripe grapes from clusters. Crush and destem the grapes. Add pectic enzyme and ¼ tsp potassium metabisulfite to the crush and stir with wooden paddle. Cover and set aside overnight. Adjust sugar and acid if required and stir in yeast nutrient, Oak-Mor and an activated yeast starter. Recover primary and punch down cap twice daily during primary fermentation. When free sulfur drops below 15 ppm (10 ppm is better), inoculate with malo-lactic culture. When specific gravity drops to 1.000, strain solids into press and extract remaining juice. Transfer wine to secondary and attach airlock. If oak flavor is not sufficient, you may add an additional 1 tablespoon of Oak-Mor powder. After 1 month, rack to sanitized carboy, top up and reattach airlock. Monitor MLF with paper chromatography and rack again when completed (usually about 2 months), adding ¼ tsp potassium metabisulfite at racking. Conduct 3-4 more rackings 1 month apart until wine clears, adding ¼ tsp potassium metabisulfite every other racking. When wine clears, it may be bottled. Allow to age 6 months in bottles before drinking.

Wild Frost Grape Wine (Makes 5 Gallons)

April 5, 2001
  • 45-50 lbs Frost Grapes
  • 7-10 lbs finely granulated sugar
  • water to top up (about 2 gallons, + or -)
  • 3-1/2 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 5 crushed Campden Tablets
  • 1 tsp acid blend
  • 5 tsp yeast nutrient
  • pkt Montrachet wine yeast

Pick the grapes when fully ripe or just past ripeness (when there is a slight slackness to the skin). Wash, destem and crush the grapes in primary fermentation vessel. Strain enough juice to float your hydrometer. Measure specific gravity and return juice to primary. Add sugar to bring S.G. to 1.088 (dissolve sugar in boiling water at ration of 2 parts [by volume] sugar to one part [by volume] water, stir until dissolved, allow to cool to room temperature, and then add to primary) and stir with wooden paddle. Add crushed Campden tablets, stir, cover primary, and wait 12 hours. Add pectic enzyme, acid blend and yeast nutrient, stir, recover, and wait additional 12 hours. Add yeast and recover primary. Punch down the cap twice daily for 7-10 days (until S.G. is 1.010). Strain and press grapes. Measure juice and calculate water needed to bring volume to 5 gallons. Return juice to primary and recover. Measure water required and bring to boil. To each gallon of water required, add 2 lbs 5 oz sugar, remove from heat and stir to dissolve. Allow to cool, add water to primary and recover. Ferment 3-5 days (until S.G. drops back to 1.010). Rack into secondary and fit airlock. After 7 days, top up if required. Three weeks later, rack into sterilized secondary, top up and refit airlock. Set aside for 4 months. Stabilize and wait 10 days for dead yeast to fall, then rack into bottles. This wine can be consumed immediately but will improve with age. [Adapted from recipe from Herman Thomas, Youngstown, Ohio]

Gewürztraminer Wine (From Juice)

April 5, 2001
  • 5 gallons Gewürztraminer grape juice (thawed)
  • 3-1/2 tsp yeast nutrient
  • potassium metabisulfite (as needed)
  • Red Star Côtes des Blacs wine yeast

Strain juice into 6- or 6-1/2-gallon containing 1/4 tsp potassium metabisulfite and yeast nutrient. Measure sugar and acidity and adjust specific gravity to 1.095 and TA to 0.65%. Allow juice to sit 10 hours and then add activated yeast starter and cover carboy mouth with double layer of muslin held by a rubberband. Ferment two days past the onset of a vigorous fermentation, then remove muslin and attach airlock. When specific gravity drops to 0.998 or lower, rack, top up and refit airlock. Wait 30 days and rack into sanitized carboy containing 1/4 tsp potassium metabisulfite. Rack again after additional 30 days, top up and again refit airlock. After final 30 days, rack, stabilize and affix airlock. Wait 10-14 days to ensure no further fermentation occurs and bottle wine. Cellar 6 months under cork to allow bouquet to develop. [Author’s own recipe]

Grape Wine

April 5, 2001
  • 8-10 gallons of grapes
  • granulated sugar
  • 5 crushed Campden tablets
  • 4 tsp pectic enzyme
  • wine yeast

Fill two 5-gallon buckets (these are plastic paint buckets available in any big home improvement store such as Home Depot) with 4 gallons of grapes each. If you don’t have a grape crusher, crush them with a 4-foot length of 4X4 wood. This will take a little work, but you have to do it. It goes easier if you have an extra bucket and crush 6-8 inches of grapes in one and then pour these into the second and repeat the process until you have 4 gallons of crushed grapes. Leave at least 8 inches of space between the top of the grapes and the top of the bucket. Continue this until you have prepared two buckets of grapes. You should get around 2 to 2-1/2 gallons of juice from each 4-gallon batch of grapes, so at least two buckets are required to make 5 gallons of wine.

Unknown Grape Wine

April 5, 2001
  • 7-1/2 pts grape juice
  • granulated sugar to raise the specific gravity to 1.095
  • 1 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1 finely crushed and dissolved Campden tablet
  • 1 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 1 sachet Red Star Montrachet or Premier Curvee wine yeast

Check specific gravity of juice and adjust to 1.088 by adding sugar (if too low) or water
(if too high) or additional juice (if just right). Put juice in primary. Add Campden tablet
(finely crushed and dissolved in some of the juice), cover primary with sanitized cloth, and
set aside for 10-12 hours. Add pectic enzyme, recover the primary, and set aside another 8-
10 hours. Stir in yeast nutrient and add activated yeast. Recover primary. When specific
gravity drops to 1.015 or lower, transfer to secondary fermentation vessel and attach airlock.
Wait until all fermentation ceases and airlock is still for two weeks, then rack into clean
secondary, top up and refit airlock. Wait additional 4-6 weeks and add another finely crushed
and dissolved Campden tablet and 1/2 teaspoon potassium sorbate to clean secondary, rack wine
onto it, top up and refit airlock. Wait 30 days, sweeten to taste, and bottle. Wait two months
before tasting. [Author’s own recipe.]

Muscadine Grape Wine (1)

April 5, 2001
  • 6 lbs ripe Muscadine Grapes
  • 2-1/4 lbs granulated sugar
  • 3 qts water
  • 1 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 1 crushed Campden tablet
  • 1 packet Montrachet wine yeast

Boil the water and dissolve the sugar in it. While sugar-water is cooling, wash, destem and crush the grapes, being sure to wear rubber gloves. Pour crushed grapes into nylon straining bag, tie securely, and put in primary. Pour water over grapes, add crushed Campden tablet and yeast nutrient, and cover primary securely. After 12 hours add pectic enzyme. Wait additional 12 hours and measure both specific gravity and acid. S.G. should be 1.090 or higher; acidity no higher than 7 p.p.t. tartaric. Correct S.G. if required by adding additional sugar, acid by using one of three methods described below following recipes. Add yeast, recover primary, and squeeze nylon bag lightly and stir must twice daily for about 5-7 days or until S.G. drops to 1.030. Press pulp well to extract liquid. Pour into secondary fermentation vessel, fit airlock, and let stand 3 weeks. Rack and top up, then rack again in 2 months and again after additional 2 months. If wine has cleared, bottle. If not, wait until wine clears, rack again and bottle. This wine may be sweetened before bottling by stabilizing, waiting 10-12 hours, then adding 2/3 to 1-1/3 cup sugar-water per gallon (2 parts sugar dissolved in 1 part water. May taste after one year, but improves remarkably with age (2-4 years). [Author’s recipe.]

Muscadine Grape Wine (2)

April 5, 2001
  • 6-8 lbs Muscadine Grapes
  • 2-1/2 lbs granulated sugar
  • 3 qts water
  • 1 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 1 crushed Campden tablet
  • 1 packet Montrachet wine yeast

Wash and destem the grapes, being sure to wear rubber gloves. Run grapes through a grape crusher or crush in crock primary using a sterilized 4X4 or other suitable device in an up-and-down action. Meanwhile, bring water to boil. Add sugar to grapes and pour boiling water over grapes and sugar. Stir well to dissolve sugar. Add crushed Campden tablet and yeast nutrient and cover crock. Wait 12 hours and add pectic enzyme. Wait 12 additional hours and measure both specific gravity and acid. S.G. should be 1.090 or higher; acidity no higher than 7 p.p.t. tartaric. Correct S.G. and acid as in recipe (1) above, if required. Add yeast, recover primary, and stir must 2-4 times daily, knocking down “cap” of skins and seeds each time. Check S.G. daily until it drops to 1.040. Strain pulp well to extract liquid and discard pulp. Recover primary and continue fermenting as before until S.G. reaches 1.030. Siphon into secondary fermentation vessel, fit airlock, and ferment 30 days. Rack and top up, then rack again every 30 days until wine has cleared. Wait additional 30 days, stabilize, and rack again. Sweeten to taste and bottle. Allow to age at least 18 months before drinking. Improves with additional aging. [Adapted from recipe published in New Orleans area newspaper, identity unknown, circa 1990.]